Two cheers for the global recovery, but doubts remain in the Euro zone

Worries are growing about some of the countries in the Euro zone slipping back into double dip recession. By convention, a recession is when national output (GDP) has fallen for two successive quarters. But this is far from being news. In a substantial number of economies, output is lower than it was not just two quarters ago, but three whole years ago, at the start of 2011.

The quarterly numbers have wobbled around up and down over this period, but they are now unequivocally below the 2011 figure in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. No surprises there. But the list goes on to include Finland, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic.

An article in the latest American Economic Review by Reinhart and Rogoff puts the events into a longer historical perspective. These are our old friends, one of them a former Chief Economist at the IMF, who declared that when the ratio of public debt to GDP above the 90-100 per cent range, the likelihood of a financial crisis rose sharply. There turned out to be a mistake in their calculations. But this time round, their numbers seem sound. They take 100 examples of financial crises, across time and countries, and look at the subsequent recovery path of GDP. In no fewer than 45 per cent of cases, there was a double dip recession. So the current situation is somewhat better than this across the developed world.

From a historical perspective, there is more good news. Reinhart and Rogoff calculate that on average, following a financial crisis, it takes no less than eight years for GDP to regain its previous peak levels. The median, the figure where half the examples are below it and half above, is six and a half years. The difference between the average and the median is accounted for by a small number of very long recessions, which push up the average.

The latest estimates of GDP in the developed countries now suggest that in most countries the peak level of output was reached in the first half of 2008. By the time of the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September of that year, the West was already in recession. The falls in GDP were pretty sharp, but by the autumn of 2009, growth had resumed almost everywhere. In early 2014, some six years on from the GDP peaks of early 2008, output is now higher in the majority of OECD countries.

The recent financial crisis and the Great Recession of the 1930s are the only examples of truly global crises in well over 100 years. Yet, tentative though it has been, the pattern of recovery seems better than the historical average, despite the dramatic nature of the crash. A key reason is that policymakers did learn from the 1930s, and outside the Euro zone carried out expansionary monetary policies. Without a change of heart by the Euro’s monetary authorities, experience suggests the recession will simply continue, especially in the Mediterranean countries where GDP remains far below the 2008 peak.

Paul Ormerod

As Published in City AM on Wednesday 21st May 2014

Share this post



t: +44 020 8878 6333

Alex O’Byrne, Associate at Volterra, is an experienced economic consultant specialising in economic, health and social impact, economic strategy, project appraisal and socio-economic planning matters.

Alex has led the socio-economic and health assessments of some of the most high profile developments across the UK, including Battersea Power Station, Olympia London, London Resort, MSG Sphere and Westfield. He has significant experience inputting to EIAs and s106 discussions as well as drafting economic statements, employment and skills strategies and affordable workspace strategies.

Alex is also experienced at economic appraisal for infrastructure. He was project manager of the economic appraisal for the City Centre to Mangere Light Rail in Auckland. He also led the economic and financial appraisals of the third tranche of the Transport Access Program for Transport for New South Wales, in which Alex developed and employed innovative methodological approaches to better capture benefits for individuals with reduced mobility.

He is interested in the limitations of current appraisal methodologies and ways of improving economic and health analysis to ensure it is accessible to as many people as possible. To this end, Alex recognises the importance of transparent and simple to understand analysis and ensuring all work is supported by a robust narrative.

Alex holds a BSc (Hons) in Economics from the University of Manchester and he was a member of the first cohort of the Mayor’s Infrastructure Young Professionals Panel.


Senior Partner

t: +44 020 8878 6333

Ellie is a partner at Volterra, specialising in the economic impact of developments and proposals, and manages many of the company’s projects on economic impact, regeneration, transport and development.

With thirteen years experience at Volterra delivering high quality projects to clients across the public and private sector, Ellie has expertise in developing methods of estimating economic impact where complex issues exist with regards to deadweight, displacement and additionality.

Ellie has significant experience in estimating the economic impact across all types of property development including residential, leisure, office and mixed use schemes.

Project management of recent high profile schemes include the luxury hotel London Peninsula, Battersea Power Station and the Nova scheme at London Victoria. Ellie has also led studies across the country estimating the economic and regeneration impact of proposed transport investments, including studies on HS2 and Crossrail.

Ellie holds a degree in Mathematics and Economics from the University of Cambridge.