The national accounts are the new JK Rowling

A potential candidate for the world’s most boring book is the Office for National Statistics’ National Accounts: Sources and Methods.  This book, all 502 pages of it, is currently available in hardback on Amazon for just 1p.  It does exactly what it says in the title.  It gives a detailed description of how the data in the national accounts – variables such as GDP, inflation, earnings – are estimated.

These data series are the building blocks on which economic policy is based.  The Bank of England has a mandate to keep inflation around 2 per cent.  The Chancellor frets if the latest GDP growth figures are weak.  All these indicators depend upon the detailed processes described in the book of gathering information, sifting it, and deciding what it means.

To an economist at least, the tedium of the book is interrupted by occasional pearls of wisdom.  There is huge uncertainty around any particular number which is produced.  Sources and Methods suggest that the potential margin of error around an estimate of GDP is plus or minus 1 per cent.  To put this in context, average annual GDP growth in the UK over the past 30 years is just 2.3 per cent.  For some of the more obscure statistics, the error margin was believed to be as large as plus or minus 15 per cent.

But national accounts have suddenly become sexy.  Sir Charles Bean, former Deputy Governor of the Bank of England, has been tasked by George Osborne to carry out an independent review of the quality and delivery of UK economic statistics.  There is a particular focus on the challenges of measuring the modern economy, with a rapidly rising proportion of all economic activity taking place via the Internet.  Measuring value in cyber society, with its completely innovative range of products and services, is a major intellectual problem.

The latest issue of one of the American Economic Association’s flagship journals, the Journal of Economic Perspectives, carries an article on communicating uncertainty in official economic statistics.  The initial estimates for any statistic are invariably revised over time.  These revisions are often large, so that the early estimates offer a misleading view of the economy to policymakers.  In the first quarter of 2014, for example, there was an unexpected fall in American GDP on the previous quarter.  Initially believed to be just 1 per cent at an annual rate, the number was revised to a much larger drop of 2.9 per cent.

The problem goes much wider. For example, national accounts statisticians rely quite a lot on surveys.  But ‘non-response’ can be serious.  In poverty statistics for the US, for example, over the 2002-12 period between 7 and 9 per cent of households in the sample yielded no data at all by not responding.  A massive 41 to 47 per cent gave incomplete data by not filling in all of the survey.

Statistics in general is suddenly fashionable. High starting salaries go to graduates who can analyse Big Data.  And the boring old national accounts find exciting new challenges.

Paul Ormerod

As published in City AM on Wednesday 15th September

Image: Harry Potter by Halle Stoutzenberger licensed under CC BY 2.0

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Alex O’Byrne, Associate at Volterra, is an experienced economic consultant specialising in economic, health and social impact, economic strategy, project appraisal and socio-economic planning matters.

Alex has led the socio-economic and health assessments of some of the most high profile developments across the UK, including Battersea Power Station, Olympia London, London Resort, MSG Sphere and Westfield. He has significant experience inputting to EIAs and s106 discussions as well as drafting economic statements, employment and skills strategies and affordable workspace strategies.

Alex is also experienced at economic appraisal for infrastructure. He was project manager of the economic appraisal for the City Centre to Mangere Light Rail in Auckland. He also led the economic and financial appraisals of the third tranche of the Transport Access Program for Transport for New South Wales, in which Alex developed and employed innovative methodological approaches to better capture benefits for individuals with reduced mobility.

He is interested in the limitations of current appraisal methodologies and ways of improving economic and health analysis to ensure it is accessible to as many people as possible. To this end, Alex recognises the importance of transparent and simple to understand analysis and ensuring all work is supported by a robust narrative.

Alex holds a BSc (Hons) in Economics from the University of Manchester and he was a member of the first cohort of the Mayor’s Infrastructure Young Professionals Panel.


Senior Partner

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Ellie is a partner at Volterra, specialising in the economic impact of developments and proposals, and manages many of the company’s projects on economic impact, regeneration, transport and development.

With thirteen years experience at Volterra delivering high quality projects to clients across the public and private sector, Ellie has expertise in developing methods of estimating economic impact where complex issues exist with regards to deadweight, displacement and additionality.

Ellie has significant experience in estimating the economic impact across all types of property development including residential, leisure, office and mixed use schemes.

Project management of recent high profile schemes include the luxury hotel London Peninsula, Battersea Power Station and the Nova scheme at London Victoria. Ellie has also led studies across the country estimating the economic and regeneration impact of proposed transport investments, including studies on HS2 and Crossrail.

Ellie holds a degree in Mathematics and Economics from the University of Cambridge.