Hikes to national insurance funds a level of public services we can’t afford

The government’s plan to increase National Insurance has sparked the predictable furore. 

The pressures to raise taxes to pay for the level of public services the electorate have come to expect is hardly new. 

The welfare state was created immediately after the Second World War. For a time, the financial demands were held in check. Over the period from 1946 to 1958, for example, the cumulative amount of net borrowing by the government was zero.

Since then, even in normal years, the government has routinely spent far more than it has raised in taxes. The annual average is roughly 3 per cent of GDP. This may not seem much, but even a small percentage of GDP is a huge number. In fact, at today’s prices, this works out to be around £60bn. 

But for a long period, the value of the outstanding stock of government debt relative to the size of the economy – GDP – remained low. Between the late 1970s and the late 2000s – when the financial crisis hit – this ratio stayed under 50 per cent. 

This was despite the fact that a lot of new debt was being issued every year to finance the deficit.

The key to this apparent puzzle is two-fold. After allowing for inflation, the amount of goods and services produced expanded on average by 2.5 per cent a year. Over these three decades, the economy more than doubled in size. Further, inflation in the 1980s was high and prices effectively doubled.

With GDP growing rapidly, through a combination of real expansion and inflation, new debt could be issued without increasing the ratio of the total debt issued, relative to the size of the economy.

Looking ahead, it is hard to believe that the economy will grow at 2.5 per cent a year over a sustained period. Historically, this is a high figure. Inflation is very unlikely to return to the 7 per cent average of the 1980s. This means it will be nigh on impossible to keep the amount of debt relative to GDP in check.

With the current demand for public services, debt will never be controlled. The Government may find unlikely inspiration in council tax. This is a highly visible tax. People see the money disappearing from their personal bank accounts into that of the council. They wonder how the money is being spent. As a result, it is a very unpopular tax.  

At the moment, only a minority of income tax payers have to fill in a return and transfer money directly to HMRC. For most people, the money is deducted through PAYE and they never see it.

Getting all income taxpayers to file a return and hand the cash over would concentrate their minds. It would act as a political restraint on government spending in the way in which council tax keeps local authorities in check already.

Paul Ormerod
As published in City AM Wednesday 15th September 2021
Image: Flickr

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e: aobyrne@volterra.co.uk
t: +44 020 8878 6333

Alex O’Byrne, Associate at Volterra, is an experienced economic consultant specialising in economic, health and social impact, economic strategy, project appraisal and socio-economic planning matters.

Alex has led the socio-economic and health assessments of some of the most high profile developments across the UK, including Battersea Power Station, Olympia London, London Resort, MSG Sphere and Westfield. He has significant experience inputting to EIAs and s106 discussions as well as drafting economic statements, employment and skills strategies and affordable workspace strategies.

Alex is also experienced at economic appraisal for infrastructure. He was project manager of the economic appraisal for the City Centre to Mangere Light Rail in Auckland. He also led the economic and financial appraisals of the third tranche of the Transport Access Program for Transport for New South Wales, in which Alex developed and employed innovative methodological approaches to better capture benefits for individuals with reduced mobility.

He is interested in the limitations of current appraisal methodologies and ways of improving economic and health analysis to ensure it is accessible to as many people as possible. To this end, Alex recognises the importance of transparent and simple to understand analysis and ensuring all work is supported by a robust narrative.

Alex holds a BSc (Hons) in Economics from the University of Manchester and he was a member of the first cohort of the Mayor’s Infrastructure Young Professionals Panel.


Senior Partner

e: eevans@volterra.co.uk
t: +44 020 8878 6333

Ellie is a partner at Volterra, specialising in the economic impact of developments and proposals, and manages many of the company’s projects on economic impact, regeneration, transport and development.

With thirteen years experience at Volterra delivering high quality projects to clients across the public and private sector, Ellie has expertise in developing methods of estimating economic impact where complex issues exist with regards to deadweight, displacement and additionality.

Ellie has significant experience in estimating the economic impact across all types of property development including residential, leisure, office and mixed use schemes.

Project management of recent high profile schemes include the luxury hotel London Peninsula, Battersea Power Station and the Nova scheme at London Victoria. Ellie has also led studies across the country estimating the economic and regeneration impact of proposed transport investments, including studies on HS2 and Crossrail.

Ellie holds a degree in Mathematics and Economics from the University of Cambridge.