Cyber society needs monopoly-busting competition, not misguided regulation

The hostility towards the virtual monopolies enjoyed by tech giants such as Google and Facebook reveals some strange bedfellows.

The European Commission is well known for its enthusiasm for regulation. No surprise, then, that last year the Commission fined Google €2.4bn – billion! – for giving its own services preferential treatment in search results. No surprise either that, last month, the European commissioner for competition, Margrethe Vestager, said that the threat to split Google into smaller companies was being “kept open”.

What was perhaps more surprising was that last summer Steve Bannon, when he was still in the White House as President Trump’s top adviser, argued that Google and Facebook have become so dominant and essential that they should be regulated like public utilities.

It is clear that lots of politicians, both in Europe and America, dislike the dramatic changes brought about by the internet. What is equally clear is that many of them have an underdeveloped understanding of what we might term “cyber society”.

In his hearing before the US Senate committee, Mark Zuckerberg was asked how Facebook made its money – a point which should be obvious to anyone who has ever used it. Another senator asked him whether Twitter was “the same as what you do”.

In many ways, this is understandable. Revolutionary technologies take time for their implications both to emerge in full and to be grasped. William Huskisson, an MP and member of the cabinet, was famously run over and killed by Stephenson’s Rocket at the locomotive trials of 1830. He simply did not appreciate how fast the miraculous new machine went.

Cyber society also creates fundamental challenges for economic theory. Consumers are assumed to be able to gather and process sufficient information to make a rational choice among the available alternatives.

In the context of, say, the supermarket, empirical evidence suggests this is a reasonable assumption to make. But I recently googled the term “mobile phones”. I received “about 155m” results. It is simply not possible to process the information from more than a minuscule fraction of these.

Even as far back as the 1950s, Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon believed the same point to be true in many situations. The model of rational choice had to be “replaced”. In essence, Simon argued that a good decision rule to use in such complex situations was to choose things which were already popular.

This sets up a positive feedback loop. The more popular your product is, the more popular it will become, simply because it is already popular.

This means that the basic market structure encountered in cyber society is monopoly. It is the opposite extreme from the economics textbook, where the core model is one of a large number of small firms.

The most effective way of undermining these monopolies is by encouraging even more innovation – the exact opposite of the top-heavy regulation of the European Commission. Regulation of market structure worked with the American oil giants in the early 1900s. The twenty-first century demands a different approach.

Paul Ormerod 

As published in City AM Wednesday 26th April 2018

Image: CyberSociety via Pxhere is licensed under CC0.0

Share this post



t: +44 020 8878 6333

Alex O’Byrne, Associate at Volterra, is an experienced economic consultant specialising in economic, health and social impact, economic strategy, project appraisal and socio-economic planning matters.

Alex has led the socio-economic and health assessments of some of the most high profile developments across the UK, including Battersea Power Station, Olympia London, London Resort, MSG Sphere and Westfield. He has significant experience inputting to EIAs and s106 discussions as well as drafting economic statements, employment and skills strategies and affordable workspace strategies.

Alex is also experienced at economic appraisal for infrastructure. He was project manager of the economic appraisal for the City Centre to Mangere Light Rail in Auckland. He also led the economic and financial appraisals of the third tranche of the Transport Access Program for Transport for New South Wales, in which Alex developed and employed innovative methodological approaches to better capture benefits for individuals with reduced mobility.

He is interested in the limitations of current appraisal methodologies and ways of improving economic and health analysis to ensure it is accessible to as many people as possible. To this end, Alex recognises the importance of transparent and simple to understand analysis and ensuring all work is supported by a robust narrative.

Alex holds a BSc (Hons) in Economics from the University of Manchester and he was a member of the first cohort of the Mayor’s Infrastructure Young Professionals Panel.


Senior Partner

t: +44 020 8878 6333

Ellie is a partner at Volterra, specialising in the economic impact of developments and proposals, and manages many of the company’s projects on economic impact, regeneration, transport and development.

With thirteen years experience at Volterra delivering high quality projects to clients across the public and private sector, Ellie has expertise in developing methods of estimating economic impact where complex issues exist with regards to deadweight, displacement and additionality.

Ellie has significant experience in estimating the economic impact across all types of property development including residential, leisure, office and mixed use schemes.

Project management of recent high profile schemes include the luxury hotel London Peninsula, Battersea Power Station and the Nova scheme at London Victoria. Ellie has also led studies across the country estimating the economic and regeneration impact of proposed transport investments, including studies on HS2 and Crossrail.

Ellie holds a degree in Mathematics and Economics from the University of Cambridge.